Figure 3:_scRNA-seq review

TB/HIV Co-infection: A Global Challenge

The dual epidemics of HIV and TB together pose one of the greatest modern-day public health challenges. While the global control of TB is compounded by co-infection with HIV, people living with HIV (PLHIV) are at high risk of reactivation of LTBI. The problem has worsened due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in PLHIV, leading to significantly higher mortality rates. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is generally contained within granulomatous lesions by the immune system. However, chronic HIV co-infection may lead to progression of LTBI to active TB (ATB) and transmission through disruption of these organized granulomas, in addition to impairing Mtb-induced systemic proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine response.