Publications by Year: 2009


Carlson, Tracy K, Jordi B Torrelles, Kelly Smith, Tim Horlacher, Riccardo Castelli, Peter H Seeberger, Erika C Crouch, and Larry S Schlesinger. (2009) 2009. “Critical Role of Amino Acid Position 343 of Surfactant Protein-D in the Selective Binding of Glycolipids from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis”. Glycobiology 19 (12): 1473-84.

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a lectin that recognizes carbohydrates via its C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), regulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-macrophage interactions via recognition of M.tb mannosylated cell wall components. SP-D binds to, agglutinates, and reduces phagocytosis and intracellular growth of M.tb. Species-specific variations in the CRD amino acid sequence contribute to carbohydrate recognition preferences and have been exploited to enhance the antimicrobial properties of SP-D in vitro. Here, we characterized the binding interaction between several wild-type and mutant SP-D neck + CRD trimeric subunits (NCRDs) and pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Specific amino acid substitutions (i.e., the 343-amino-acid position) that flank the carbohydrate binding groove led to significant increases in binding of only virulent and attenuated M.tb strains and to a lesser extent M. marinum, whereas there was negligible binding to M. avium complex and M. smegmatis. Moreover, a nonconserved mutation at the critical 321-amino-acid position (involved in Ca(2+) coordination) abrogated binding to M.tb and M. marinum. We further characterized the binding of NCRDs to the predominant surface-exposed mannosylated lipoglycans of the M.tb cell envelope. Results showed a binding pattern that is dependent on the nature of the side chain of the 343-amino-acid position flanking the SP-D CRD binding groove and the nature of the terminal mannosyl sugar linkages of the mycobacterial lipoglycans. We conclude that the 343 position is critical in defining the binding pattern of SP-D proteins to M.tb and its mannosylated cell envelope components.

Torrelles, Jordi B, Lucy E DesJardin, Jessica MacNeil, Thomas M Kaufman, Beth Kutzbach, Rose Knaup, Travis R McCarthy, et al. (2009) 2009. “Inactivation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mannosyltransferase PimB Reduces the Cell Wall Lipoarabinomannan and Lipomannan Content and Increases the Rate of Bacterial-Induced Human Macrophage Cell Death”. Glycobiology 19 (7): 743-55.

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall contains an important group of structurally related mannosylated lipoglycans called phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), lipomannan (LM), and mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), where the terminal alpha-[1–>2] mannosyl structures on higher order PIMs and ManLAM have been shown to engage C-type lectins such as the macrophage mannose receptor directing M.tb phagosome maturation arrest. An important gene described in the biosynthesis of these molecules is the mannosyltransferase pimB (Rv0557). Here, we disrupted pimB in a virulent strain of M.tb. We demonstrate that the inactivation of pimB in M.tb does not abolish the production of any of its cell wall mannosylated lipoglycans; however, it results in a quantitative decrease in the ManLAM and LM content without affecting higher order PIMs. This finding indicates gene redundancy or the possibility of an alternative biosynthetic pathway that may compensate for the PimB deficiency. Furthermore, infection of human macrophages by the pimB mutant leads to an alteration in macrophage phenotype concomitant with a significant increase in the rate of macrophage death.

Shi, Libin, Jordi B Torrelles, and Delphi Chatterjee. (2009) 2009. “Lipoglycans of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Isolation, Purification, and Characterization”. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.) 465: 23-45.

In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps involved in isolation and characterization of lipoglycans from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. In addition, procedures involved in structural analysis such as immunoblotting with mAb CS-35 or CS-40, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and endoarabinanase digestion followed by high-pH anion exchange chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis are presented.