Publications by Year: 2014


Binjawadagi, Basavaraj, Varun Dwivedi, Cordelia Manickam, Kang Ouyang, Yun Wu, Ly James Lee, Jordi B Torrelles, and Gourapura J Renukaradhya. (2014) 2014. “Adjuvanted poly(lactic-Co-Glycolic) Acid Nanoparticle-Entrapped Inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Vaccine Elicits Cross-Protective Immune Response in Pigs”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9: 679-94.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG₁ and IgG₂ antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1-Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ(+) lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible.

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj, Varun Dwivedi, Cordelia Manickam, Kang Ouyang, Jordi B Torrelles, and Gourapura J Renukaradhya. (2014) 2014. “An Innovative Approach to Induce Cross-Protective Immunity Against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in the Lungs of Pigs through Adjuvanted Nanotechnology-Based Vaccination”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9: 1519-35.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system.

Moliva, Juan I, Murugesan S Rajaram V, Sabeen Sidiki, Smitha J Sasindran, Evelyn Guirado, Xueliang Jeff Pan, Shu-Hua Wang, et al. (2014) 2014. “Molecular Composition of the Alveolar Lining Fluid in the Aging Lung”. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 36 (3): 9633.

As we age, there is an increased risk for the development of pulmonary diseases, including infections, but few studies have considered changes in lung surfactant and components of the innate immune system as contributing factors to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to succumb to infections. We and others have demonstrated that human alveolar lining fluid (ALF) components, such as surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, complement protein C3, and alveolar hydrolases, play a significant innate immune role in controlling microbial infections. However, there is a lack of information regarding the effect of increasing age on the level and function of ALF components in the lung. Here we addressed this gap in knowledge by determining the levels of ALF components in the aging lung that are important in controlling infection. Our findings demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines, surfactant proteins and lipids, and complement components are significantly altered in the aged lung in both mice and humans. Further, we show that the aging lung is a relatively oxidized environment. Our study provides new information on how the pulmonary environment in old age can potentially modify mucosal immune responses, thereby impacting pulmonary infections and other pulmonary diseases in the elderly population.

Malde, Anandkumar, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Kshipra Chandrashekhar, Ruby Pina-Mimbela, Jordi B Torrelles, and Gireesh Rajashekara. (2014) 2014. “Functional Characterization of Exopolyphosphatase Guanosine Pentaphosphate Phosphohydrolase (PPX GPPA) of Campylobacter Jejuni”. Virulence 5 (4): 521-33.

The inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P) is a key regulator of stress responses and virulence in many bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni. The role of exopolyphosphatases/guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) phosphohydrolases (PPX/GPPA) in poly-P homeostasis and C. jejuni pathobiology remains unexplored. Here, we analyzed deletion mutants (∆ppx1, ∆ppx2) and the double knockout mutant (dkppx), all ∆ppx mutants exhibited increased capacity to accumulate poly-P; however only ∆ppx1 and dkppx mutants showed decreased accumulation of ppGpp, an alarmone molecule that regulates stringent response in bacteria, suggesting potential dual role for PPX1/GPPA. Nutrient survival defect of ∆ppx mutants was rescued by the supplementation of specific amino acids implying that survival defect may be associated with decreased ppGpp and/ or increased poly-P in ∆ppx mutants. The ppk1 and spoT were upregulated in both ∆ppx1 and ∆ppx2 suggesting a compensatory role for SpoT and Ppk1 in poly-P and ppGpp homeostasis. The lack of ppx genes resulted in defects in motility, biofilm formation, nutrient stress survival, invasion and intracellular survival indicating that maintaining a certain level of poly-P is critical for ppx genes in C. jejuni pathophysiology. Both ppx1 and ppx2 mutants were resistant to human complement-mediated killing; however, the dkppx mutant was sensitive. The serum susceptibility did not occur in the presence of MgCl 2 and EGTA suggesting an involvement of the classical or lectin pathway of complement mediated killing. Interestingly, the chicken serum did not have any effect on the ∆ppx mutants' survival. The observed serum susceptibility was not related to C. jejuni surface capsule and lipooligosaccharide structures. Our study underscores the importance of PPX/GPPA proteins in poly-P and ppGpp homeostasis, two critical molecules that modulate environmental stress responses and virulence in C. jejuni.

Canan, Cynthia H, Nandan S Gokhale, Bridget Carruthers, William P Lafuse, Larry S Schlesinger, Jordi B Torrelles, and Joanne Turner. (2014) 2014. “Characterization of Lung Inflammation and Its Impact on Macrophage Function in Aging”. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 96 (3): 473-80.

Systemic inflammation that occurs with increasing age (inflammaging) is thought to contribute to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to several disease states. The elderly are at significant risk for developing pulmonary disorders and infectious diseases, but the contribution of inflammation in the pulmonary environment has received little attention. In this study, we demonstrate that the lungs of old mice have elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and a resident population of highly activated pulmonary macrophages that are refractory to further activation by IFN-γ. The impact of this inflammatory state on macrophage function was determined in vitro in response to infection with M.tb. Macrophages from the lungs of old mice secreted more proinflammatory cytokines in response to M.tb infection than similar cells from young mice and also demonstrated enhanced M.tb uptake and P-L fusion. Supplementation of mouse chow with the NSAID ibuprofen led to a reversal of lung and macrophage inflammatory signatures. These data indicate that the pulmonary environment becomes inflammatory with increasing age and that this inflammatory environment can be reversed with ibuprofen.